Literature

Review of New Segregation Measurement Technique (5M)
Segregation in industrial settings is responsible for a significant amount of lost product due to poor quality issues. Finding a way to predict segregation is critical to optimize product design or mitigate quality issues with bulk materials. A new method of computing concentrations and segregation intensities of multi-component mixtures from reflectance measurements is presented.
Find this article: www.sciencedirect.com, doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2014.02.021

Effect of Particle Shape on Unconfined Yield Strengh (1.3M)
Understanding what particle scale properties affect strength will help engineers design better products prior to production, reduce costly mistakes, and increase productivity.
Find this article: www.sciencedirect.com, doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2009.05.004

Knowing Your Material: Achieving Successful Process Design (296K)
Often system hang-ups are caused by the cohesive nature of bulk material. The paper discusses guidelines for reducing the cohesive nature of bulk materials and using this information to achieve successful process design.

The Product Fits the Bill - Successful Product Design (167K)
Designing a product to successfully flow through the prescribed process is contingent on knowing and understanding the material's key flow properties.

Why is Understanding Segregation Mechanisms so Important? (358K)
Knowing the segregation mechanism(s) in your process equipment is critical to solving potential segregation problems.

Fine Powder Design - Flow Rate Control (298K)
Managing material flow rate is critical in designing both product and process for fine powder production.

Predicting Cone-in-Cone Blender Efficiencies from Key Material Properties (6.05M)
Blending of bulk materials is a critical industrial unit operation, yet the ability to predict blending effectiveness lags well behind our ability to create new and novel blenders. Here is methodology to predict blender performance in simple in-bin blenders using easily measured material properties.
Find this article: www.sciencedirect.com, doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2006.08.022

Comparison of New Bulk Yield Strength Measurement Technique with Traditional Schulze (direct shear measurements) Method (498K)
This paper highlights a new test methodology that allows the user to easily measure the bulk strength of a small ~0.1 cc sample of material in just three minutes. This new technique allows reliable direct measurement of unconfined yield strength at low stress levels – as low as 30 Pa.

Understanding Degradation Fundamentals (107K)
Measuring and understanding degradation types is critical in designing processes and products that minimize these effects.

Rathole Stability Analysis for Aerated Powder Materials (539K)
Today, industry uses a variety of flow aid devices to overcome predicted rathole and arch formations - but number and placement of these devices are often based only on practical experience.

This paper fills the knowledge void with sound theoretical principals, adding gas pressure gradient terms to the rathole stability analysis performed by Jenike - extending the flow-no-flow rathole analysis to aerated conditions.
Find this article: www.sciencedirect.com, doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2004.02.004

Measurement of K-values in Diamondback Hoppers using pressure sensitive pads (591K)
This paper presents measurements of wall stresses using pressure sensitive pads made by TekScank. The wall stresses in a Diamondback Hopperk were measured, indicating significant spatial stress variation. These hopper stresses were used to compute spatially varying K-values using a modified Janssen stress approach.
Find this article: www.sciencedirect.com, doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2004.01.002

Flow Behavior of the Liquid/Powder Mixture, Theory and Experiment: I. Effect of the Capillary Force (Bridging Rupture) (175 K)
Employing the equality of the mechanical work of shear stress and the energy of liquid bridges, a formula is developed for shear stress and unconfined yield strength of compressed powder, consisting of mono-sized solid particles mixed with oil.
Find this article: www.sciencedirect.com, doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2010.07.035

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